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Title
Author Year Age Population Etiology Study Type More Study Information Screened Country Prevalence Standardization
Incidence of hydrocephalus and the need to ventriculoperitoneal shunting in premature infants with intraventricular hemorrhage: risk factors and outcome. Behjati S, Emami-Naeini P, Nejat F, El Khashab M. 2011 Neonate Intraventricular Hemorrhage Post Hemorrhagic Hydrocephalus Retrospective A historical cohort study was conducted, consisting of 97 premature infants in whom the diagnosis of IVH was previously made by cranial ultrasound and were referred to pediatric neurosurgery clinic and/or neonatal intensive care unit of Children’s Hospital Medical Center in Tehran, Iran, from April 2004 to March 2009. Among the patients, those who were followed up for at least 6 months after the diagnosis of IVH were included in the study 97 premature infants with IVH Tehran, Iran 35% required VP shunt – all grade 3 or 4 IVH 350/1,000 IVH preterm neonates required VP shunt
Incidence and neurodevelopmental outcome of periventricular hemorrhage and hydrocephalus in a regional population of very low birth weight infants. Hanigan WC, Morgan AM, Anderson RJ, Bradle P, Cohen HS, Cusack TJ, Thomas-McCauley T, Miller TC. 1991 Neonate Periventricular Hemorrhage Post Hemorrhagic Hydrocephalus Prospective VLBW infants admitted to a state-designed Level III Neonatal Intensive Care Unit between 1984 and 1987 97 VLBW infants w/ PVH (part of a group of 459 VLBW infants) Illinois, United States 12% incidence of hydrocephalus associated with high-grade PVH 120/1,000 with high-grade PVH
Incidence of intraventricular hemorrhage and post hemorrhagic hydrocephalus in preterm infants. Sajjadian N, Fakhrai H, Jahadi R. 2010 Neonate Neonate Post Hemorrhagic Hydrocephalus Prospective Premature neonates (birth weight equal or less than 1500g and gestational age equal or less than 37 weeks) admitted to Mofid Hospital NICU during a one year period 57 neonates                               35 with hemorrhage                 7 with PHH Tehran, Iran  12.3% of premature neonates                             20% of preterm with hemorrhage – directly related to severity 123/1,000 premature neonates                             200/1,000  preterm with hemorrhage
Hydrocephalus in tuberculous meningitis: Incidence, its predictive factors and impact on the prognosis. Raut T, Garg RK, Jain A, Verma R, Singh MK, Malhotra HS, Kohli N, Parihar A. 2013 Adult Tuberculous Meningitis Post Infectious Hydrocephalus Prospective Prospective cohort study, conducted from October 2010 to august 2012, in the Department of Neurology, King George’s Medical University 80 patients Uttar Pradesh, India 67% after tuberculous meningitis 670/1,000 after tuberculosus meningitis
Chronic hydrocephalus in elderly patients following subarachnoid hemorrhage. Yoshioka H, Inagawa T, Tokuda Y, Inokuchi F. 2000 Adult Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Post Hemorrhagic Hydrocephalus Prospective From 1979 to 1996, patients with aneurysmal SAH admitted to the Department of Neurosurgery, Shimane Prefectural Central Hospital and surgically treated 576 patients Izumo, Japan 37% (215/576 Patients) chronic hydrocephalus 370/1,000 with treated SAH – chronic hydrocephalus
Hydrocephalus following severe traumatic brain injury in adults. Incidence, timing, and clinical predictors during rehabilitation. Kammersgaard LP, Linnemann M, Tibæk M. 2013 Adult Tramatic Brain Injury Posttraumatic Hydrocephalus Prospective Prospectively followed all patients (n = 444) in Eastern Denmark (population 2.5 mill) sustaining severe TBI, who required lengthy rehabilitation between 2000 and 2010 444 patients Eastern Denmark 14.2% of severe TBI patients                                       Prevalence in population                             0.00252% 140/1,000 of severe TBI patients                                 Prevalence: population    0.0252/1,000
Incidence and Risk Factors for Post-Traumatic Hydrocephalus
following Decompressive Craniectomy for Intractable
Intracranial Hypertension and Evacuation of Mass Lesions
Honeybul & Ho 2013 Adult Tramatic Brain Injury Posttraumatic Hydrocephalus Retrospective Patients who received a decompressive craniectomy at the two major trauma hospitals in Western Australia between 2004 and 2010 194 patients who had had a decompressive craniectomy for severe TBI between 2004 and 2010 Australia 36% developed hydrocephalus requiring VP shunt 360/1,000 of severe TBI patients
Posttraumatic hydrocephalus associated with decompressive cranial defect in severe brain-injured patients. Shi SS, Zhang GL, Zeng T, Lin YF 2011 Adult Tramatic Brain Injury Posttraumatic Hydrocephalus Retrospective Patients suffering from severe head trauma between January 2004 and May 2010  389 patients w/ severe head trauma; 149 underwent  decompressive
craniectomy
Fuzhou, China 16.8% of those who underwent DC; 9.6% of the remaining patients who did not undergo DC 168/1,000 of severe TBI cases which underwent DC; 96/1000 of severe TBI cases w/o DC
Outcomes after decompressive craniectomy for severe traumatic brain injury in children. Kan P, Amini A, Hansen K, White GL Jr, Brockmeyer DL, Walker ML, Kestle JR 2006 Child Tramatic Brain Injury Posttraumatic Hydrocephalus Retrospective Reviewed the Trauma Registry at the Primary Children’s Medical Center to identify the cohort of children with severe TBI who underwent decompressive craniectomy between 1996 and 2005 35 surviving children/51 children with severe head trauma Salt Lake City, Utah 40% 400/1,000 severe TBI cases
Posttraumatic hydrocephalus: a clinical, neuroradiologic, and neuropsychologic assessment of long-term outcome. Mazzini L, Campini R, Angelino E, Rognone F, Pastore I, Oliveri G 2003 Adult Tramatic Brain Injury Posttraumatic Hydrocephalus Prospective Patients referred to an inpatient intensive rehabilitation unit of primary care in a university-based system 140 patients with severe traumatic brain injury Turin, Italy 45% 440/1,000 severe TBI cases
Post-traumatic hydrocephalus. Licata C, Cristofori L, Gambin R, Vivenza C, Turazzi S 2001 All Tramatic Brain Injury Posttraumatic Hydrocephalus Patients with severe head trauma treated from 1972 to 1999 at the Department of Neurosurgery at the City Hospital of Verona 4,044 patients with severe head trauma Verona, Italy 2.40% 24/1,000 severe TBI cases
Post-traumatic hydrocephalus: experience in 17 consecutive cases. Phuenpathom N, Ratanalert S, Saeheng S, Sripairojkul B 1999 All Tramatic Brain Injury Posttraumatic Hydrocephalus Retrospective Patients seen at Songklanagarind Hospital from January 1993 to February 1996 1080 head-injured patients                                  385 severe head injury Songkhla, Thailand                           1.6% of all TBI                                          1.8% of severe TBI 18/1,000 severe TBI cases
Posttraumatic ventriculomegaly: hydrocephalus or atrophy? A new approach for diagnosis using CSF dynamics Marmarou A, Abd-Elfattah Foda MA, Bandoh K, et al 1996 Tramatic Brain Injury Posttraumatic Hydrocephalus Prospective Division of Neurosurgery, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University 75 patients with severe head trauma Richmond, VA 20% 200/1,000 severe TBI cases
Posttraumatic hydrocephalus–a retrospective review. Cardoso ER, Galbraith S 1985 All Tramatic Brain Injury Posttraumatic Hydrocephalus Retrospective Patients with hydrocephalus treated in the Institute
of Neurological Sciences, Glasgow, between
and July 1981
2374 cases of severe head injury Glasgow, Scotland 0.70% 7/1,000 severe TBI cases
Prevalence, natural history, and clinical outcome of mild to moderate ventriculomegaly. Sethna F, Tennant PW, Rankin J, C Robson S. 2011 Fetus Fetus Ventriculomegaly Prospective Data were extracted from the U.K. Northern Congenital Abnormality Survey for cases identified during 1994–2008 454,080 registered births North of England 7.8 mild to moderate/10,000 total 0.78/1,000 registered births
Epidemiology, natural history, progression, and postnatal outcome of severe fetal ventriculomegaly. Hannon T, Tennant PW, Rankin J, Robson SC. 2013 Fetus Fetus Ventriculomegaly Prospective Data were obtained from the Northern Congenital Abnormality Survey for the period 1994-2008 441,247 eligible births North of England  3.6 severe/10,000 pregnancies, 64.3% of women terminated births 0.36/1,000 pregnancies
Epidemiology of congenital hydrocephalus in Utah, 1940-1979: report of an iatrogenically related “epidemic” Blackburn BL, Fineman RM. 1994 Neonate Neonate Congenital Hydrocephalus Retrospective Data were ascertained by examination of multiple sources, e.g., 982,066 birth, 11,161 fetal death, and 248,208 death certificates, and selected hospital and clinic records 1M neonates from 1940-1979 Utah 0.70/1,000 live and still births 0.70/1,000 live and still births
Incidence of congenital hydrocephalus and the role of the prenatal diagnosis Cavalcanti DP, Salomão MA. 2003 Neonate Neonate (Excluding NTD) Congenital Hydrocephalus Retrospective Data were collected from medical records of the Perinatal Genetics Sector (CAISM) 35,112 live births and still births (>500g) From 1987-1998 Brazil  3.16/1,000 births 3.16/1,000 births
Congenital hydrocephalus–prevalence and prognosis. Mortality and morbidity in a population-based study Christensen JH, Hansen LK, Garne E. 2003 Neonate Neonate w/ Birth Defects Congenital Hydrocephalus Retrospective Data for the study were taken from the Eurocat Register of Congenital Malformations for the County of Funen and from medical records 72,500 births From 1986-1998 Funen county, Denmark 0.4/1,000 births 0.4/1,000 births
Prevalence analysis on congenital hydrocephalus in Chinese perinatal from 1996 to 2004 Dai L, Zhou GX, Miao L, Zhu J, Wang YP, Liang J 2006 Neonate Neonate w/ Birth Defects Congenital Hydrocephalus Retrospective Data gained from Chinese Birth Defects Monitoring Network from 1996 to 2004 4,282,536 births from 1996-2004 China 7.03/10,000 0.703/1,000 births
Descriptive epidemiology of congenital hydrocephaly in Hawaii, 1986–2000. Forrester MB, Merz RD 2005 Neonate Neonate w/ Birth Defects Congenital Hydrocephalus Retrospective Using data from a birth defects registry for the period between 1986 and 2000 Hawaii 10.4/10,000 live births 1.04/1,000 live births
Congenital hydrocephalus–prevalence, prenatal diagnosis and outcome of pregnancy in four European regions. Garne E, Loane M, Addor MC, Boyd PA, Barisic I, Dolk H. 2010 Neonate Neonate w/ Birth Defects Congenital Hydrocephalus Retrospective Data were taken from four European registries of congenital malformations (EUROCAT) for the tim period betwee 1996 and 2003. Cases with hydrocephalus associated wth neural tube defects not included. 187,097 Registered  neonates Switzerland, UK, Denmark, Croatia 4.65/10,000                             48% terminated pregnancies 0.465/1,000
Prevalence of congenital hydrocephalus in California, 1991-2000. Jeng S, Gupta N, Wrensch M, Zhao S, Wu YW. 2011 Neonate Neonate Congenital Hydrocephalus Retrospective Data extracted from the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD) discharge database for the period between 1991 and 2000 5,353,022 births California, United States 5.9/10,000 0.59/1,000
The incidence of cleft lip, cleft palate, hydrocephalus and spina bifida at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi. Msamati BC, Igbigbi PS, Chisi JE. 2000 Neonate Neonate Congenital Hydrocephalus Retrospective Data from all births at Queen Elizabeth Hospital betwenn 1998 and 1999 25,562 births from 1998-1999 Blantyre, Malawi 0.47/1,000 hydrocephalus  0.23/1,000 hydrocephalus and spina bifida 0.47/1,000 births (hydrocephalus)  0.23/1,000 hydrocephalus and spina bifida
Neural tube defects and congenital hydrocephalus in the Sultanate of Oman. Rajab A, Vaishnav A, Freeman NV, Patton MA 1998 Neonate Neonate Congenital Hydrocephalus Retrospective Data extracted from hospital records betweem 1989 and 1995 242,764 births From 1989-1995 Sultanate of Oman 0.44/1,000 births 0.44/1,000 births
Genetic epidemiologic study of hydrocephalus Shi MA, Chen YL 1990 Neonate Neonate Congenital Hydrocephalus Live and still births were monitered 77,214 live and still births China 1.09%                        1.09/1,000 live and still births 1.09/1,000 live and still births
Occurrence of congenital hydrocephalus in the Czech Republic 1961-1995 Sípek A, Gregor V, Horácek J, Chudobová M, Korandová V, Skibová J. 1998 Neonate Neonate Congenital Hydrocephalus Retrospective From a consecutive series of 5,137,907 births in the Czech Republic during 1961-1995 5,137,907 births From 1961-1995 Czech Republic 3.99/10,000 live born births 0.399/1,000 live born births
Congenital hydrocephalus 1961-2000–incidence, prenatal diagnosis and prevalence based on maternal age Sípek A, Gregor V, Horácek J, Masátová D. 2002 Neonate Neonate Congenital Hydrocephalus Retrospective Data from the nationwide registration of birth defects were used, kept in in the Institute for Health Information and Statistics of the Czech Republic 5.75M From 1961-2000 Czech Republic 6.35/10,000 live 0.635/1,000 live
Twelve-year prevalence of common neonatal congenital malformations in Zhejiang Province, China. Sun G, Xu ZM, Liang JF, Li L, Tang DX. 2011 Neonate Neonate Congenital Hydrocephalus Retrospective Assess prevalence by reviewing a database of all deliveries from 28 weeks up until 7 days of birth from January 1998 to December 2009 83,888 perinatal, 1998-2009 Zhejiang Province, China 0.92% of births 9.2/1,000 births
Infantile hydrocephalus in the south-western region of Saudi Arabia. el Awad ME 1992 Neonate Neonate Infantile hydrocephalus During the period January 1988 to December 1990 74,923 live births SW Saudi Arabia 0.81/1,000 live births 0.81/1,000 live births
Infantile hydrocephalus in preterm, low-birth-weight infants–a nationwide Swedish cohort study 1979-1988. Fernell E, Hagberg G, Hagberg B 1993 Neonate Neonate Infantile hydrocephalus All Swedish infants with shunt-treated infantile hydrocephalus, born during the period 1979-88 at < or = 34 weeks gestational age and of low birth weight, were studied. From 1979-1988 Sweden 15.9/1,000 live birth, v. preterm                     5.1/1,000 live birth, moderate preterm 15.9/1,000 live birth, v. preterm                     5.1/1,000 live birth, moderate preterm
Epidemiology of infantile hydrocephalus in Saudi Arabia: birth prevalence and associated factors. Murshid WR, Jarallah JS, Dad MI. 2000 Neonate Neonate (Excluding NTD) Infantile hydrocephalus Prospective Conducted over a 1-year period from April 1996 to March 1997 in the city of Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, Saudi Arabia. Except for neural tube defects and brain tumors, all cases of hydrocephalus diagnosed within the first 28 days of life were included. 16,250 live births from Apr 1996-Mar 1997 Saudi Arabia 1.6/1,000 live births 1.6/1,000 live births
Clinico-epidemiologic study of infantile hydrocephalus in Japan Negoro T, Watanabe K, Nakashima S, Kikuchi H, Tamakoshi A. 1994 Neonate Neonate Infantile hydrocephalus A nation-wide survey on congenital hydrocephalus, including secondary hydrocephalus occurring within one year after birth, was carried out in 1988. Japan’s population Japan 0.58/1,000 live births 0.58/1,000 live births
Pre- and neonatal hydrocephalus in the Middle East: experience in Qatar. Nogueira GJ 1992 Neonate Neonate Infantile hydrocephalus Retrospective  All cases of hydrocephalus diagnosed antenatally or within the first 10 days of life during the period 1986-1989 were reviewed. 41,402 births From 1986-1989 Qatar 157/100,000 live births 1.57/1,000 live births
Hydrocephalus in children born in 1999-2002: epidemiology, outcome and ophthalmological findings. Persson EK, Anderson S, Wiklund LM, Uvebrant P 2007 Neonate Neonate Infantile hydrocephalus Prospective This prospective study was population-based, and the study area was the western part of Sweden during the birth year period 1999–2002 82,106 live born children From 1999-2002 Sweden 0.48/1,000 0.48/1,000
Hydrocephalus prevalence and outcome in a population-based cohort of children born in 1989-1998. Persson EK, Hagberg G, Uvebrant P 2005 Neonate Neonate Infantile hydrocephalus Retrospective The study population was the 253 378 live births occurring in the western part of Sweden during the 10-y period 1989–1998. Information about birth characteristics as well as the aetiology of hydrocephalus and additional major impairments was obtained from rehabilitation centres and paediatric and neurosurgical records. 253,378 Live born children from 1989-1998 Sweden 0.49/1,000 0.49/1,000 for infantile
Persson EK, Hagberg G, Uvebrant P 2005 Neonate Neonate Myelomeningocoele Retrospective The study population was the 253 378 live births occurring in the western part of Sweden during the 10-y period 1989–1998. Information about birth characteristics as well as the aetiology of hydrocephalus and additional major impairments was obtained from rehabilitation centres and paediatric and neurosurgical records. 253,378 Live born children from 1989-1998 Sweden 0.33/1,000 assoc with MMC 0.33/1,000 assoc with MMC
National and regional incidence of surgery for adult hydrocephalus in Sweden. Tisell M, Höglund M, Wikkelsø C 2005 Adult Surgery for Hydrocephalus Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Retrospective All patients 18 years or older who were operated for hydrocephalus at one of the six university hospitals in Sweden during the years 1996–1998 were included. Patients with a previous shunt or ETV for hydrocephalus were excluded, as were patients operated with a shunt for other diagnoses, e.g., idiopathic intracranial hypertension or arachnoidal cyst.
Medical records of all operated patients were reviewed by M.H. at site.
891 adults operated for hydrocephalus Sweden 47% 470/1000 hydrocephalus surgeries
Prevalence of probable idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus in a Norwegian population. Brean A, Eide PK. 2008 Adult Adult Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Prospective In a stable population of 220,000 inhabitants, structured and intensive efforts were directed towards the public via local newspapers, radio and television channels, and directed towards the healthcare professionals via personal letters and lectures, to recruit patients with idiopathic NPH (iNPH) investigation during a 12-month period. This population is served by only one neurological department and one neurosurgical department, thus avoiding any leakage of patients during the investigation period. We determined those patients fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of probable iNPH. 220,000 inhabitants Norway 21.9/100,000                                                5.5/100,000/year 0.219/1,000                     Incidence:                             0.055/1,000/year
Prevalence of idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus in the elderly population of a Japanese rural community. Hiraoka K, Meguro K, Mori E. 2008 Adult Adult Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Retrospective The prevalence of idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) in a community was investigated by retrospective analysis of data from a previous community-based study of 170 randomly selected elderly residents aged 65 years or older. 170 Randomly selected residents 65+ Rural Japan 2.90% 29/1,000 age 65+
Incidence of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH): a 10-year follow-up study of a rural community in Japan. Iseki C, Takahashi Y, Wada M, Kawanami T, Adachi M, Kato T. 2014 Adult Adult Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Prospective Conducted a longitudinal study in a rural area of northern Japan in 2000. At that time, 350 inhabitants, the total population of 70-year-olds in Takahata (who were born in 1930) were requested to participate in the study. 271 inhabitants of Takahata Japan 1.2/1000/year 70+:                         1.2/1,000/year
Prevalence of possible idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus in Japan: the Osaki-Tajiri project. Tanaka N, Yamaguchi S, Ishikawa H, Ishii H, Meguro K. 2009 Adult Adult Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Prospective Five hundred and sixty-seven participants were randomly selected from among the 1,654 members of the population aged 65 years and older in Tajiri, Japan 567 participant randomly selected from population Osaki-Tajiri, Japan 1.40%                                    140/10,000 aged 65+ 14.0/1,000 aged 65+
Prevalence of idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus. Jaraj D, Rabiei K, Marlow T, Jensen C, Skoog I, Wikkelsø C. 2014 Adult Adult Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Prospective Between 1986 and 2000, studies on representative elderly populations in Gothenburg, Sweden, were conducted using identical examinations (including neuropsychiatric examinations and key informant interviews) at each occasion. All participants were systematically obtained from the Swedish population register based on birth dates and included people living in private households and in residential care. Subsamples were examined with CT of the brain. CT scans made between 1986 and 2000 were available and used in this study. 1,238 between 1986-2000 Sweden Age 70-79: 0.2%                 Age 80+: 5.9% 70-79:     2/1,000                                                   80+:       59/1,000
Five-year incidence of surgery for idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus in Norway. Brean A, Fredø HL, Sollid S, Müller T, Sundstrøm T, Eide PK. 2009 Adult Adult Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Retrospective Information about age, sex, operation year and operation type was collected retrospectively for all patients hospitalized from 2002 to 2006 with any diagnosis of iNPH and operated with insertion of a ventriculo-peritoneal or ventriculoatrial shunt system, or with endoscopic third ventriculostomy in any of Norway’s five regional neurosurgical centers. 23.1M population                  252 patients operated on Vestfold county in Norway 1.09/100,000/year            incidence In >65:                  30.2/100,000/5 years 0.0109/1,000/year            incidence In >65:                  0.302/1,000/5 years
Post-traumatic hydrocephalus in patients with severe head injury. Kishore PR, Lipper MH, Miller JD, Girevendulis AK, Becker DP, Vines FS 1978 Tramatic Brain Injury Posttraumatic Hydrocephalus 100 consecutive patients with severe TBI 4% hydro                                   29% all ventriculomegaly 40/1,000 severe TBI cases
Risk factors related to hydrocephalus after traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage. Tian HL1, Xu T, Hu J, Cui YH, Chen H, Zhou LF. 2008 All Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Post Hemorrhagic Hydrocephalus Prospective A consecutive series of 370 patients with tSAH, defined as subarachnoid hemorrhagesecondary to head injury, were admitted at our institution from January 2002 to December 2004. Patients who had spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage with or without head injury were excluded. 301 consecutive patients China 11.98% developed hydro 119.8/1,000

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