Databases

Prevalence
Title
Author Year Age Population Etiology Study Type More Study Information Screened Country Prevalence Standardization
Incidence of hydrocephalus and the need to ventriculoperitoneal shunting in premature infants with intraventricular hemorrhage: risk factors and outcome. Behjati S, Emami-Naeini P, Nejat F, El Khashab M. 2011 Neonate Intraventricular Hemorrhage Post Hemorrhagic Hydrocephalus Retrospective A historical cohort study was conducted, consisting of 97 premature infants in whom the diagnosis of IVH was previously made by cranial ultrasound and were referred to pediatric neurosurgery clinic and/or neonatal intensive care unit of Children’s Hospital Medical Center in Tehran, Iran, from April 2004 to March 2009. Among the patients, those who were followed up for at least 6 months after the diagnosis of IVH were included in the study 97 premature infants with IVH Tehran, Iran 35% required VP shunt – all grade 3 or 4 IVH 350/1,000 IVH preterm neonates required VP shunt
Incidence and neurodevelopmental outcome of periventricular hemorrhage and hydrocephalus in a regional population of very low birth weight infants. Hanigan WC, Morgan AM, Anderson RJ, Bradle P, Cohen HS, Cusack TJ, Thomas-McCauley T, Miller TC. 1991 Neonate Periventricular Hemorrhage Post Hemorrhagic Hydrocephalus Prospective VLBW infants admitted to a state-designed Level III Neonatal Intensive Care Unit between 1984 and 1987 97 VLBW infants w/ PVH (part of a group of 459 VLBW infants) Illinois, United States 12% incidence of hydrocephalus associated with high-grade PVH 120/1,000 with high-grade PVH
Incidence of intraventricular hemorrhage and post hemorrhagic hydrocephalus in preterm infants. Sajjadian N, Fakhrai H, Jahadi R. 2010 Neonate Neonate Post Hemorrhagic Hydrocephalus Prospective Premature neonates (birth weight equal or less than 1500g and gestational age equal or less than 37 weeks) admitted to Mofid Hospital NICU during a one year period 57 neonates                               35 with hemorrhage                 7 with PHH Tehran, Iran  12.3% of premature neonates                             20% of preterm with hemorrhage – directly related to severity 123/1,000 premature neonates                             200/1,000  preterm with hemorrhage
Hydrocephalus in tuberculous meningitis: Incidence, its predictive factors and impact on the prognosis. Raut T, Garg RK, Jain A, Verma R, Singh MK, Malhotra HS, Kohli N, Parihar A. 2013 Adult Tuberculous Meningitis Post Infectious Hydrocephalus Prospective Prospective cohort study, conducted from October 2010 to august 2012, in the Department of Neurology, King George’s Medical University 80 patients Uttar Pradesh, India 67% after tuberculous meningitis 670/1,000 after tuberculosus meningitis
Chronic hydrocephalus in elderly patients following subarachnoid hemorrhage. Yoshioka H, Inagawa T, Tokuda Y, Inokuchi F. 2000 Adult Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Post Hemorrhagic Hydrocephalus Prospective From 1979 to 1996, patients with aneurysmal SAH admitted to the Department of Neurosurgery, Shimane Prefectural Central Hospital and surgically treated 576 patients Izumo, Japan 37% (215/576 Patients) chronic hydrocephalus 370/1,000 with treated SAH – chronic hydrocephalus
Hydrocephalus following severe traumatic brain injury in adults. Incidence, timing, and clinical predictors during rehabilitation. Kammersgaard LP, Linnemann M, Tibæk M. 2013 Adult Tramatic Brain Injury Posttraumatic Hydrocephalus Prospective Prospectively followed all patients (n = 444) in Eastern Denmark (population 2.5 mill) sustaining severe TBI, who required lengthy rehabilitation between 2000 and 2010 444 patients Eastern Denmark 14.2% of severe TBI patients                                       Prevalence in population                             0.00252% 140/1,000 of severe TBI patients                                 Prevalence: population    0.0252/1,000
Incidence and Risk Factors for Post-Traumatic Hydrocephalus
following Decompressive Craniectomy for Intractable
Intracranial Hypertension and Evacuation of Mass Lesions
Honeybul & Ho 2013 Adult Tramatic Brain Injury Posttraumatic Hydrocephalus Retrospective Patients who received a decompressive craniectomy at the two major trauma hospitals in Western Australia between 2004 and 2010 194 patients who had had a decompressive craniectomy for severe TBI between 2004 and 2010 Australia 36% developed hydrocephalus requiring VP shunt 360/1,000 of severe TBI patients
Posttraumatic hydrocephalus associated with decompressive cranial defect in severe brain-injured patients. Shi SS, Zhang GL, Zeng T, Lin YF 2011 Adult Tramatic Brain Injury Posttraumatic Hydrocephalus Retrospective Patients suffering from severe head trauma between January 2004 and May 2010  389 patients w/ severe head trauma; 149 underwent  decompressive
craniectomy
Fuzhou, China 16.8% of those who underwent DC; 9.6% of the remaining patients who did not undergo DC 168/1,000 of severe TBI cases which underwent DC; 96/1000 of severe TBI cases w/o DC
Outcomes after decompressive craniectomy for severe traumatic brain injury in children. Kan P, Amini A, Hansen K, White GL Jr, Brockmeyer DL, Walker ML, Kestle JR 2006 Child Tramatic Brain Injury Posttraumatic Hydrocephalus Retrospective Reviewed the Trauma Registry at the Primary Children’s Medical Center to identify the cohort of children with severe TBI who underwent decompressive craniectomy between 1996 and 2005 35 surviving children/51 children with severe head trauma Salt Lake City, Utah 40% 400/1,000 severe TBI cases
Posttraumatic hydrocephalus: a clinical, neuroradiologic, and neuropsychologic assessment of long-term outcome. Mazzini L, Campini R, Angelino E, Rognone F, Pastore I, Oliveri G 2003 Adult Tramatic Brain Injury Posttraumatic Hydrocephalus Prospective Patients referred to an inpatient intensive rehabilitation unit of primary care in a university-based system 140 patients with severe traumatic brain injury Turin, Italy 45% 440/1,000 severe TBI cases
Post-traumatic hydrocephalus. Licata C, Cristofori L, Gambin R, Vivenza C, Turazzi S 2001 All Tramatic Brain Injury Posttraumatic Hydrocephalus Patients with severe head trauma treated from 1972 to 1999 at the Department of Neurosurgery at the City Hospital of Verona 4,044 patients with severe head trauma Verona, Italy 2.40% 24/1,000 severe TBI cases
Post-traumatic hydrocephalus: experience in 17 consecutive cases. Phuenpathom N, Ratanalert S, Saeheng S, Sripairojkul B 1999 All Tramatic Brain Injury Posttraumatic Hydrocephalus Retrospective Patients seen at Songklanagarind Hospital from January 1993 to February 1996 1080 head-injured patients                                  385 severe head injury Songkhla, Thailand                           1.6% of all TBI                                          1.8% of severe TBI 18/1,000 severe TBI cases
Posttraumatic ventriculomegaly: hydrocephalus or atrophy? A new approach for diagnosis using CSF dynamics Marmarou A, Abd-Elfattah Foda MA, Bandoh K, et al 1996 Tramatic Brain Injury Posttraumatic Hydrocephalus Prospective Division of Neurosurgery, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University 75 patients with severe head trauma Richmond, VA 20% 200/1,000 severe TBI cases
Posttraumatic hydrocephalus–a retrospective review. Cardoso ER, Galbraith S 1985 All Tramatic Brain Injury Posttraumatic Hydrocephalus Retrospective Patients with hydrocephalus treated in the Institute
of Neurological Sciences, Glasgow, between
and July 1981
2374 cases of severe head injury Glasgow, Scotland 0.70% 7/1,000 severe TBI cases
Prevalence, natural history, and clinical outcome of mild to moderate ventriculomegaly. Sethna F, Tennant PW, Rankin J, C Robson S. 2011 Fetus Fetus Ventriculomegaly Prospective Data were extracted from the U.K. Northern Congenital Abnormality Survey for cases identified during 1994–2008 454,080 registered births North of England 7.8 mild to moderate/10,000 total 0.78/1,000 registered births
Epidemiology, natural history, progression, and postnatal outcome of severe fetal ventriculomegaly. Hannon T, Tennant PW, Rankin J, Robson SC. 2013 Fetus Fetus Ventriculomegaly Prospective Data were obtained from the Northern Congenital Abnormality Survey for the period 1994-2008 441,247 eligible births North of England  3.6 severe/10,000 pregnancies, 64.3% of women terminated births 0.36/1,000 pregnancies
Epidemiology of congenital hydrocephalus in Utah, 1940-1979: report of an iatrogenically related “epidemic” Blackburn BL, Fineman RM. 1994 Neonate Neonate Congenital Hydrocephalus Retrospective Data were ascertained by examination of multiple sources, e.g., 982,066 birth, 11,161 fetal death, and 248,208 death certificates, and selected hospital and clinic records 1M neonates from 1940-1979 Utah 0.70/1,000 live and still births 0.70/1,000 live and still births
Incidence of congenital hydrocephalus and the role of the prenatal diagnosis Cavalcanti DP, Salomão MA. 2003 Neonate Neonate (Excluding NTD) Congenital Hydrocephalus Retrospective Data were collected from medical records of the Perinatal Genetics Sector (CAISM) 35,112 live births and still births (>500g) From 1987-1998 Brazil  3.16/1,000 births 3.16/1,000 births
Congenital hydrocephalus–prevalence and prognosis. Mortality and morbidity in a population-based study Christensen JH, Hansen LK, Garne E. 2003 Neonate Neonate w/ Birth Defects Congenital Hydrocephalus Retrospective Data for the study were taken from the Eurocat Register of Congenital Malformations for the County of Funen and from medical records 72,500 births From 1986-1998 Funen county, Denmark 0.4/1,000 births 0.4/1,000 births
Prevalence analysis on congenital hydrocephalus in Chinese perinatal from 1996 to 2004 Dai L, Zhou GX, Miao L, Zhu J, Wang YP, Liang J 2006 Neonate Neonate w/ Birth Defects Congenital Hydrocephalus Retrospective Data gained from Chinese Birth Defects Monitoring Network from 1996 to 2004 4,282,536 births from 1996-2004 China 7.03/10,000 0.703/1,000 births
Descriptive epidemiology of congenital hydrocephaly in Hawaii, 1986–2000. Forrester MB, Merz RD 2005 Neonate Neonate w/ Birth Defects Congenital Hydrocephalus Retrospective Using data from a birth defects registry for the period between 1986 and 2000 Hawaii 10.4/10,000 live births 1.04/1,000 live births
Congenital hydrocephalus–prevalence, prenatal diagnosis and outcome of pregnancy in four European regions. Garne E, Loane M, Addor MC, Boyd PA, Barisic I, Dolk H. 2010 Neonate Neonate w/ Birth Defects Congenital Hydrocephalus Retrospective Data were taken from four European registries of congenital malformations (EUROCAT) for the tim period betwee 1996 and 2003. Cases with hydrocephalus associated wth neural tube defects not included. 187,097 Registered  neonates Switzerland, UK, Denmark, Croatia 4.65/10,000                             48% terminated pregnancies 0.465/1,000
Prevalence of congenital hydrocephalus in California, 1991-2000. Jeng S, Gupta N, Wrensch M, Zhao S, Wu YW. 2011 Neonate Neonate Congenital Hydrocephalus Retrospective Data extracted from the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD) discharge database for the period between 1991 and 2000 5,353,022 births California, United States 5.9/10,000 0.59/1,000
The incidence of cleft lip, cleft palate, hydrocephalus and spina bifida at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi. Msamati BC, Igbigbi PS, Chisi JE. 2000 Neonate Neonate Congenital Hydrocephalus Retrospective Data from all births at Queen Elizabeth Hospital betwenn 1998 and 1999 25,562 births from 1998-1999 Blantyre, Malawi 0.47/1,000 hydrocephalus  0.23/1,000 hydrocephalus and spina bifida 0.47/1,000 births (hydrocephalus)  0.23/1,000 hydrocephalus and spina bifida
Neural tube defects and congenital hydrocephalus in the Sultanate of Oman. Rajab A, Vaishnav A, Freeman NV, Patton MA 1998 Neonate Neonate Congenital Hydrocephalus Retrospective Data extracted from hospital records betweem 1989 and 1995 242,764 births From 1989-1995 Sultanate of Oman 0.44/1,000 births 0.44/1,000 births
Genetic epidemiologic study of hydrocephalus Shi MA, Chen YL 1990 Neonate Neonate Congenital Hydrocephalus Live and still births were monitered 77,214 live and still births China 1.09%                        1.09/1,000 live and still births 1.09/1,000 live and still births
Occurrence of congenital hydrocephalus in the Czech Republic 1961-1995 Sípek A, Gregor V, Horácek J, Chudobová M, Korandová V, Skibová J. 1998 Neonate Neonate Congenital Hydrocephalus Retrospective From a consecutive series of 5,137,907 births in the Czech Republic during 1961-1995 5,137,907 births From 1961-1995 Czech Republic 3.99/10,000 live born births 0.399/1,000 live born births
Congenital hydrocephalus 1961-2000–incidence, prenatal diagnosis and prevalence based on maternal age Sípek A, Gregor V, Horácek J, Masátová D. 2002 Neonate Neonate Congenital Hydrocephalus Retrospective Data from the nationwide registration of birth defects were used, kept in in the Institute for Health Information and Statistics of the Czech Republic 5.75M From 1961-2000 Czech Republic 6.35/10,000 live 0.635/1,000 live
Twelve-year prevalence of common neonatal congenital malformations in Zhejiang Province, China. Sun G, Xu ZM, Liang JF, Li L, Tang DX. 2011 Neonate Neonate Congenital Hydrocephalus Retrospective Assess prevalence by reviewing a database of all deliveries from 28 weeks up until 7 days of birth from January 1998 to December 2009 83,888 perinatal, 1998-2009 Zhejiang Province, China 0.92% of births 9.2/1,000 births
Infantile hydrocephalus in the south-western region of Saudi Arabia. el Awad ME 1992 Neonate Neonate Infantile hydrocephalus During the period January 1988 to December 1990 74,923 live births SW Saudi Arabia 0.81/1,000 live births 0.81/1,000 live births
Infantile hydrocephalus in preterm, low-birth-weight infants–a nationwide Swedish cohort study 1979-1988. Fernell E, Hagberg G, Hagberg B 1993 Neonate Neonate Infantile hydrocephalus All Swedish infants with shunt-treated infantile hydrocephalus, born during the period 1979-88 at < or = 34 weeks gestational age and of low birth weight, were studied. From 1979-1988 Sweden 15.9/1,000 live birth, v. preterm                     5.1/1,000 live birth, moderate preterm 15.9/1,000 live birth, v. preterm                     5.1/1,000 live birth, moderate preterm
Epidemiology of infantile hydrocephalus in Saudi Arabia: birth prevalence and associated factors. Murshid WR, Jarallah JS, Dad MI. 2000 Neonate Neonate (Excluding NTD) Infantile hydrocephalus Prospective Conducted over a 1-year period from April 1996 to March 1997 in the city of Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, Saudi Arabia. Except for neural tube defects and brain tumors, all cases of hydrocephalus diagnosed within the first 28 days of life were included. 16,250 live births from Apr 1996-Mar 1997 Saudi Arabia 1.6/1,000 live births 1.6/1,000 live births
Clinico-epidemiologic study of infantile hydrocephalus in Japan Negoro T, Watanabe K, Nakashima S, Kikuchi H, Tamakoshi A. 1994 Neonate Neonate Infantile hydrocephalus A nation-wide survey on congenital hydrocephalus, including secondary hydrocephalus occurring within one year after birth, was carried out in 1988. Japan’s population Japan 0.58/1,000 live births 0.58/1,000 live births
Pre- and neonatal hydrocephalus in the Middle East: experience in Qatar. Nogueira GJ 1992 Neonate Neonate Infantile hydrocephalus Retrospective  All cases of hydrocephalus diagnosed antenatally or within the first 10 days of life during the period 1986-1989 were reviewed. 41,402 births From 1986-1989 Qatar 157/100,000 live births 1.57/1,000 live births
Hydrocephalus in children born in 1999-2002: epidemiology, outcome and ophthalmological findings. Persson EK, Anderson S, Wiklund LM, Uvebrant P 2007 Neonate Neonate Infantile hydrocephalus Prospective This prospective study was population-based, and the study area was the western part of Sweden during the birth year period 1999–2002 82,106 live born children From 1999-2002 Sweden 0.48/1,000 0.48/1,000
Hydrocephalus prevalence and outcome in a population-based cohort of children born in 1989-1998. Persson EK, Hagberg G, Uvebrant P 2005 Neonate Neonate Infantile hydrocephalus Retrospective The study population was the 253 378 live births occurring in the western part of Sweden during the 10-y period 1989–1998. Information about birth characteristics as well as the aetiology of hydrocephalus and additional major impairments was obtained from rehabilitation centres and paediatric and neurosurgical records. 253,378 Live born children from 1989-1998 Sweden 0.49/1,000 0.49/1,000 for infantile
Persson EK, Hagberg G, Uvebrant P 2005 Neonate Neonate Myelomeningocoele Retrospective The study population was the 253 378 live births occurring in the western part of Sweden during the 10-y period 1989–1998. Information about birth characteristics as well as the aetiology of hydrocephalus and additional major impairments was obtained from rehabilitation centres and paediatric and neurosurgical records. 253,378 Live born children from 1989-1998 Sweden 0.33/1,000 assoc with MMC 0.33/1,000 assoc with MMC
National and regional incidence of surgery for adult hydrocephalus in Sweden. Tisell M, Höglund M, Wikkelsø C 2005 Adult Surgery for Hydrocephalus Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Retrospective All patients 18 years or older who were operated for hydrocephalus at one of the six university hospitals in Sweden during the years 1996–1998 were included. Patients with a previous shunt or ETV for hydrocephalus were excluded, as were patients operated with a shunt for other diagnoses, e.g., idiopathic intracranial hypertension or arachnoidal cyst.
Medical records of all operated patients were reviewed by M.H. at site.
891 adults operated for hydrocephalus Sweden 47% 470/1000 hydrocephalus surgeries
Prevalence of probable idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus in a Norwegian population. Brean A, Eide PK. 2008 Adult Adult Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Prospective In a stable population of 220,000 inhabitants, structured and intensive efforts were directed towards the public via local newspapers, radio and television channels, and directed towards the healthcare professionals via personal letters and lectures, to recruit patients with idiopathic NPH (iNPH) investigation during a 12-month period. This population is served by only one neurological department and one neurosurgical department, thus avoiding any leakage of patients during the investigation period. We determined those patients fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of probable iNPH. 220,000 inhabitants Norway 21.9/100,000                                                5.5/100,000/year 0.219/1,000                     Incidence:                             0.055/1,000/year
Prevalence of idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus in the elderly population of a Japanese rural community. Hiraoka K, Meguro K, Mori E. 2008 Adult Adult Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Retrospective The prevalence of idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) in a community was investigated by retrospective analysis of data from a previous community-based study of 170 randomly selected elderly residents aged 65 years or older. 170 Randomly selected residents 65+ Rural Japan 2.90% 29/1,000 age 65+
Incidence of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH): a 10-year follow-up study of a rural community in Japan. Iseki C, Takahashi Y, Wada M, Kawanami T, Adachi M, Kato T. 2014 Adult Adult Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Prospective Conducted a longitudinal study in a rural area of northern Japan in 2000. At that time, 350 inhabitants, the total population of 70-year-olds in Takahata (who were born in 1930) were requested to participate in the study. 271 inhabitants of Takahata Japan 1.2/1000/year 70+:                         1.2/1,000/year
Prevalence of possible idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus in Japan: the Osaki-Tajiri project. Tanaka N, Yamaguchi S, Ishikawa H, Ishii H, Meguro K. 2009 Adult Adult Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Prospective Five hundred and sixty-seven participants were randomly selected from among the 1,654 members of the population aged 65 years and older in Tajiri, Japan 567 participant randomly selected from population Osaki-Tajiri, Japan 1.40%                                    140/10,000 aged 65+ 14.0/1,000 aged 65+
Prevalence of idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus. Jaraj D, Rabiei K, Marlow T, Jensen C, Skoog I, Wikkelsø C. 2014 Adult Adult Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Prospective Between 1986 and 2000, studies on representative elderly populations in Gothenburg, Sweden, were conducted using identical examinations (including neuropsychiatric examinations and key informant interviews) at each occasion. All participants were systematically obtained from the Swedish population register based on birth dates and included people living in private households and in residential care. Subsamples were examined with CT of the brain. CT scans made between 1986 and 2000 were available and used in this study. 1,238 between 1986-2000 Sweden Age 70-79: 0.2%                 Age 80+: 5.9% 70-79:     2/1,000                                                   80+:       59/1,000
Five-year incidence of surgery for idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus in Norway. Brean A, Fredø HL, Sollid S, Müller T, Sundstrøm T, Eide PK. 2009 Adult Adult Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Retrospective Information about age, sex, operation year and operation type was collected retrospectively for all patients hospitalized from 2002 to 2006 with any diagnosis of iNPH and operated with insertion of a ventriculo-peritoneal or ventriculoatrial shunt system, or with endoscopic third ventriculostomy in any of Norway’s five regional neurosurgical centers. 23.1M population                  252 patients operated on Vestfold county in Norway 1.09/100,000/year            incidence In >65:                  30.2/100,000/5 years 0.0109/1,000/year            incidence In >65:                  0.302/1,000/5 years
Post-traumatic hydrocephalus in patients with severe head injury. Kishore PR, Lipper MH, Miller JD, Girevendulis AK, Becker DP, Vines FS 1978 Tramatic Brain Injury Posttraumatic Hydrocephalus 100 consecutive patients with severe TBI 4% hydro                                   29% all ventriculomegaly 40/1,000 severe TBI cases
Risk factors related to hydrocephalus after traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage. Tian HL1, Xu T, Hu J, Cui YH, Chen H, Zhou LF. 2008 All Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Post Hemorrhagic Hydrocephalus Prospective A consecutive series of 370 patients with tSAH, defined as subarachnoid hemorrhagesecondary to head injury, were admitted at our institution from January 2002 to December 2004. Patients who had spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage with or without head injury were excluded. 301 consecutive patients China 11.98% developed hydro 119.8/1,000
Comorbidities
Title
Author Year Age Etiology Comorbidity Screened Country Prevalence
Behavioural problems and autism in children with hydrocephalus : a population-based study. Lindquist B, Carlsson G, Persson EK, Uvebrant P. 2006 Children Infantile or associated with myelomeningeocele Behavioural Problems 67 pateints Sweden 39%
Behavioural problems and autism in children with hydrocephalus : a population-based study. Lindquist B, Carlsson G, Persson EK, Uvebrant P. 2006 Children Infantile Autism 41 patients Sweden 20%
Behavioural problems and autism in children with hydrocephalus : a population-based study. Lindquist B, Carlsson G, Persson EK, Uvebrant P. 2006 Children Associated with myelomeningeocele Autism 26 patients Sweden 3.85%
Disabilities in children with hydrocephalus–a population-based study of children aged between four and twelve years. Persson EK, Hagberg G, Uvebrant P. 2006 Children Infantile Learning disabilities 70 patients Sweden 47%
Disabilities in children with hydrocephalus–a population-based study of children aged between four and twelve years. Persson EK, Hagberg G, Uvebrant P. 2006 Children Associated with myelomeningeocele Learning disabilities 44 patients Sweden 16%
Disabilities in children with hydrocephalus–a population-based study of children aged between four and twelve years. Persson EK, Hagberg G, Uvebrant P. 2006 Children Infantile Cerebral Palsy 70 patients Sweden 27%
Disabilities in children with hydrocephalus–a population-based study of children aged between four and twelve years. Persson EK, Hagberg G, Uvebrant P. 2006 Children Infantile Epilepsy 70 patients Sweden 34%
Disabilities in children with hydrocephalus–a population-based study of children aged between four and twelve years. Persson EK, Hagberg G, Uvebrant P. 2006 Children Associated with myelomeningeocele Epilepsy 44 patients Sweden 11%
Hydrocephalus in children born in 1999-2002: epidemiology, outcome and ophthalmological findings. Persson EK, Anderson S, Wiklund LM, Uvebrant P. 2007 Children Infantile or associated with myelomeningeocele Ophthalmological Abnormalities 40 patients Sweden 80%
Autistic symptoms in children with infantile hydrocephalus. Fernell E, Gillberg C, von Wendt L. 1991 Children Infantile Autism 69 patients Sweden 23%
Autistic symptoms in children with infantile hydrocephalus. Fernell E, Gillberg C, von Wendt L. 1991 Children Infantile Epilepsy 53 patients Sweden 9%
Autistic symptoms in children with infantile hydrocephalus. Fernell E, Gillberg C, von Wendt L. 1991 Children Infantile Cerebral Palsy 53 patients Sweden 19%
Autistic symptoms in children with infantile hydrocephalus. Fernell E, Gillberg C, von Wendt L. 1991 Children Infantile Mental Retardation 53 patients Sweden 23%
Idiopathic normal‐pressure hydrocephalus: clinical comorbidity correlated with cerebral biopsy findings and outcome of cerebrospinal fluid shunting R Bech‐Azeddine, P Høgh, M Juhler, F Gjerris, and G Waldemar 2007 Adult Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Alzheimer’s 28 patients 42.90%
Idiopathic normal‐pressure hydrocephalus: clinical comorbidity correlated with cerebral biopsy findings and outcome of cerebrospinal fluid shunting R Bech‐Azeddine, P Høgh, M Juhler, F Gjerris, and G Waldemar 2007 Adult Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Cerebrovascular Disease 28 patients 60.70%
Are some cases of spina bifida combined with cerebral palsy? A study of 28 cases. Ozaras N, Yalcin S, Ofluoglu D, Gureri B, Cabukoglu C, Erol B. 2005 Children Associated with meningomyelocele Cerebral Palsy 365 patients 7.70%
Correlations between mini-mental state examination score, cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers, and pathology observed in brain biopsies of patients with normal-pressure hydrocephalus. Elobeid A, Laurell K, Cesarini KG, Alafuzoff I. 2015 Adult Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Alzheimer’s 111 biopsy samples 47%
Post-hemispherectomy hydrocephalus: results of a comprehensive, multi-institutional review Lew SM, Matthews AE, Hartman AL, Haranhalli N; Post-Hemispherectomy Hydrocephalus Workgroup. 2012 Children Acquired Hydrocephalus Epilepsy 736 patients (who underwent hemispherectomy for epilepsy) USA and Japan 23% (required treatment for hydrocpehalus)
Epilepsy in shunted posthemorrhagic infantile hydrocephalus owing to pre- or perinatal intra- or periventricular hemorrhage. Battaglia D, Pasca MG, Cesarini L, Tartaglione T, Acquafondata C, Randò T, Veredice C, Ricci D, Guzzetta F. 2005 Children Shunted Post Hemmorhagic Hydrocephalus Epilepsy 40 patients 67.50%
Psychiatric symptoms are present in most of the patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus. Oliveira MF, Oliveira JR, Rotta JM, Pinto FC. 2014 Adult Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Psychiatric Syndromes 35 patients 71.42%
Visual function in infants with congenital hydrocephalus with and without myelomeningocoele Idowu OE, Balogun MM. 2013 Children Congenital hydrocephalus associated with myelomeningeocele Optic Atrophy 50 patients 18%
Epilepsy in Children with Meningomyelocele Talwar et al. 1995 Children Associated with meningomyelocele Epilepsy 81 patients USA 17.30%
Epilepsy in Children with Meningomyelocele Talwar et al. 1995 Children Associated with meningomyelocele Seizures 81 patients USA 21.00%
The incidence of epilepsy after ventricular shunting procedures Dan et al. 1986 All Shunted Hydrocephalus Seizures 207 patients USA 9.40%
Epidemiology of Infantile Hydrocephalus in Sweden: A Clinical Follow-Up Study in Children Born at Term Fernell et al 1988 Children Infantile Hydrocephalus Cerebral Palsy 68 patients Sweden 28%
Epidemiology of Infantile Hydrocephalus in Sweden: A Clinical Follow-Up Study in Children Born at Term Fernell et al 1988 Children Infantile Hydrocephalus Minor Motor Dysfunction 68 patients Sweden 25%
Epidemiology of Infantile Hydrocephalus in Sweden: A Clinical Follow-Up Study in Children Born at Term Fernell et al 1988 Children Infantile Hydrocephalus Epilepsy 68 patients Sweden 22%
Epidemiology of Infantile Hydrocephalus in Sweden: A Clinical Follow-Up Study in Children Born at Term Fernell et al 1988 Children Infantile Hydrocephalus Intellectual Disability 68 patients Sweden 38%
Epilepsy in shunt-treated hydrocephalus. Klepper J, Büsse M, Strassburg HM, Sörensen N. 1998 All Shunted Hydrocephalus Epilepsy 182 pateints Germany 20%
Prevalence of hydrocephalus in 157 patients with vestibular schwannoma. Rogg JM, Ahn SH, Tung GA, Reinert SE, Norén G. 2005 Adult Vestibular Schwannoma Hydrocephalus 157 pateints USA 18%
Genetics
Title
Authors Year Species Strain Clinical Form Trait Locus Chromosome Human Synthetic Region Human Gene
Congenital hydrocephalus internus and aqueduct stenosis: aetiology and implications for genetic counselling. Haverkamp F, Wolfle J, Aretz M, et al.

1999

Human Congenital Autosomal Recessive Unknown unknown
Autosomal recessive nonsyndromal hydrocephalus. Teebi AS, Naguib KK

1988

Human Congenital Autosomal Recessive Unknown unknown
Hydrocephalus in mice following X-irradiation at early gestational stage: possibly due to persistent deceleration of cell proliferation Aolad HM, Inouye M, Darmanto W, et al.

2000

Human Congenital Autosomal Recessive Unknown unknown
Autosomal recessive hydrocephalus with third ventricle obstruction. Chow CW, McKelvie PA, Anderson RM, et al

1990

Human Congenital Autosomal Recessive Unknown unknown
Consecutive Hydrocephalus: Report of 2 Cases. Abdul-Karim R, Iliya F, Iskandar G

1964

Human Congenital Autosomal Recessive Unknown unknown
Fetal growth retardation, hydrocephalus, hypoplastic multilobed lungs, and other anomalies in 4 sibs. Game K, Friedman JM, Paradice B, et al

1989

Human Congenital Autosomal Recessive Unknown unknown
Familial hydrocephalus of prenatal onset. Zlotogora J, Sagi M, Cohen T

1994

Human Congenital Autosomal Recessive Unknown unknown
Autosomal recessive diseases among Palestinian Arabs. Zlotogora J

1997

Human Congenital Autosomal Recessive Unknown unknown
Genetic disorders among Palestinian Arabs. 2. Hydrocephalus and neural tube defects. Zlotogora J

1997

Human Congenital Autosomal Recessive Unknown unknown
Autosomal recessive hydrocephalus with aqueductal stenosis. Castro-Gago M, Alonso A, Eiris-Punal J

1996

Human Congenital Autosomal Recessive Unknown unknown
Bilateral sensorineural deafness and hydrocephalus due to foramen of Monro obstruction in sibs: a newly described autosomal recessive disorder. Chudley AE, McCullough C, McCullough DW

1997

Human Congenital Autosomal Recessive Unknown unknown
Sibs with Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly, hydrocephalus, and leptomeningeal calcifications: a new autosomal recessive syndrome? Moog U, Bleeker-Wagemakers EM, Crobach P, et al.

1998

Human Congenital Autosomal Recessive Unknown unknown
Familial hydrocephalus. Chalmers RM, Andreae L, Wood NW, et al.

1999

Human Congenital Autosomal Recessive Unknown unknown
Autosomal recessive hydrocephalus due to congenital stenosis of the aqueduct of sylvius. Hamada H, Watanabe H, Sugimoto M, et al.

1999

Human Congenital Autosomal Recessive Unknown unknown
Congenital hydranencephalic-hydrocephalic syndrome with proliferative vasculopathy: a possible relation with mitochondrial dysfunction. Castro-Gago M, Pintos-Martinez E, Forteza-Vila J, et al.

2001

Human Congenital Autosomal Recessive Unknown unknown
Familial congenital hydrocephalus and aqueduct stenosis with probably autosomal dominant inheritance and variable expression. Verhagen WI, Bartels RH, Fransen E, et al.

1998

Human Congenital Autosomal Dominant Unknown 8q12.2-21.2 or unknown
A proposed new contiguous gene syndrome on 8q consists of Branchio-Oto-Renal (BOR) syndrome, Duane syndrome, a dominant form of hydrocephalus and trapeze aplasia; implications for the mapping of the BOR gene. Vincent C, Kalatzis V, Compain S, et al.

1994

Human Congenital Autosomal Dominant Unknown 8q12.2-21.2 or unknown
Familial occurrence of idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus. Portenoy RK, Berger A, Gross E

1984

Human Adult Onset Autosomal Dominant NPH unknown
A missense mutation confirms the L1 defect in X-linked hydrocephalus (HSAS). Jouet M, Rosenthal A, MacFarlane J, et al.

1993

Human Congenital X-linked L1cam x x L1CAM
Late onset X-linked hydrocephalus with normal cerebrospinal fluid pressure. Katsuragi S, Teraoka K, Ikegami K, et al.

2000

Human Adult Onset X-linked Unknown x x
Chromosomal linkage associated with disease severity in the hydrocephalic H-Tx rat. Jones HC, Carter BJ, Depelteau JS, et al.

2001

Rat HTX Congenital Quantitative Trait Locus D9Rat2 9q38 5q21.1, 18p11.22-31
Genome-wide linkage analysis of inherited hydrocephalus in the H-Tx rat. Mamm Genome Jones HC, Depelteau JS, Carter BJ, et al.

2001

Rat HTX Congenital Quantitative Trait Locus D9Rat2 9q38 5q21.1, 18p11.22-31
The frequency of inherited hydrocephalus is influenced by intrauterine factors in H-Tx rats. Jones HC, Depelteau JS, Carter BJ, et al.

2002

Rat HTX Congenital Quantitative Trait Locus D9Rat2 9q38 5q21.1, 18p11.22-31
Genetic analysis of inherited hydrocephalus in a rat model. Jones HC, Yehia B, Chen GF, et al.

2004

Rat HTX Congenital Quantitative Trait Locus D9Rat2 9q38 5q21.1, 18p11.22-31
Chromosomal linkage associated with disease severity in the hydrocephalic H-Tx rat. Jones HC, Carter BJ, Depelteau JS, et al.

2001

Rat HTX Congenital Quantitative Trait Locus D10Rat136, D10Rat135 10q32.1-10q32.3 17q21.3-q25.3
Genome-wide linkage analysis of inherited hydrocephalus in the H-Tx rat. Mamm Genome Jones HC, Depelteau JS, Carter BJ, et al.

2001

Rat HTX Congenital Quantitative Trait Locus D10Rat136, D10Rat135 10q32.1-10q32.3 17q21.3-q25.3
The frequency of inherited hydrocephalus is influenced by intrauterine factors in H-Tx rats. Jones HC, Depelteau JS, Carter BJ, et al.

2002

Rat HTX Congenital Quantitative Trait Locus D10Rat136, D10Rat135 10q32.1-10q32.3 17q21.3-q25.3
Genetic analysis of inherited hydrocephalus in a rat model. Jones HC, Yehia B, Chen GF, et al.

2004

Rat HTX Congenital Quantitative Trait Locus D10Rat136, D10Rat135 10q32.1-10q32.3 17q21.3-q25.3
Chromosomal linkage associated with disease severity in the hydrocephalic H-Tx rat. Jones HC, Carter BJ, Depelteau JS, et al.

2001

Rat HTX Congenital Quantitative Trait Locus D11Arb2, D11Rat46 11q23 3q27-28, 22q11.21, 10p12.2
Genome-wide linkage analysis of inherited hydrocephalus in the H-Tx rat. Mamm Genome Jones HC, Depelteau JS, Carter BJ, et al.

2001

Rat HTX Congenital Quantitative Trait Locus D11Arb2, D11Rat46 11q23 3q27-28, 22q11.21, 10p12.2
The frequency of inherited hydrocephalus is influenced by intrauterine factors in H-Tx rats. Jones HC, Depelteau JS, Carter BJ, et al.

2002

Rat HTX Congenital Quantitative Trait Locus D11Arb2, D11Rat46 11q23 3q27-28, 22q11.21, 10p12.2
Genetic analysis of inherited hydrocephalus in a rat model. Jones HC, Yehia B, Chen GF, et al.

2004

Rat HTX Congenital Quantitative Trait Locus D11Arb2, D11Rat46 11q23 3q27-28, 22q11.21, 10p12.2
Chromosomal linkage associated with disease severity in the hydrocephalic H-Tx rat. Jones HC, Carter BJ, Depelteau JS, et al.

2001

Rat HTX Congenital Quantitative Trait Locus D17Mit4, D17Rat154 17q12.1 1q43, 10p11.21-p13
Genome-wide linkage analysis of inherited hydrocephalus in the H-Tx rat. Mamm Genome Jones HC, Depelteau JS, Carter BJ, et al.

2001

Rat HTX Congenital Quantitative Trait Locus D17Mit4, D17Rat154 17q12.1 1q43, 10p11.21-p13
The frequency of inherited hydrocephalus is influenced by intrauterine factors in H-Tx rats. Jones HC, Depelteau JS, Carter BJ, et al.

2002

Rat HTX Congenital Quantitative Trait Locus D17Mit4, D17Rat154 17q12.1 1q43, 10p11.21-p13
Genetic analysis of inherited hydrocephalus in a rat model. Jones HC, Yehia B, Chen GF, et al.

2004

Rat HTX Congenital Quantitative Trait Locus D17Mit4, D17Rat154 17q12.1 1q43, 10p11.21-p13
Congenital hydrocephalus revealed in the inbred rat, LEW/Jms. Sasaki S, Goto H, Nagano H, et al.

1983

Rat LEW/Jms Congenital Autosomal Recessive, Quantitative Trait Locus uknown unknown
Characteristics of hydrocephalus expression in the LEW/Jms rat strain with inherited disease. Jones HC, Carter BJ, Morel L

2003

Rat LEW/Jms Congenital Autosomal Recessive, Quantitative Trait Locus uknown unknown
Quantitative trait loci modulate ventricular size in the mouse brain. Zygourakis CC, Rosen GD

2003

Mouse C57BL/6J Congenital Quantitative Trait Locus Vent8a 8 8p11-23, 13q11-34
Quantitative trait loci modulate ventricular size in the mouse brain. Zygourakis CC, Rosen GD

2003

Mouse C57BL/6J Congenital Quantitative Trait Locus Vent4b 4 6p, 9
Quantitative trait loci modulate ventricular size in the mouse brain. Zygourakis CC, Rosen GD

2003

Mouse C57BL/6J Congenital Quantitative Trait Locus Vent7c 7 19q10-13
Hydrocephalus, a hereditary character in the house mouse. Clark F

1932

Mouse hy1 Congenital Autosomal Recessive unknown unknown
Anatomical basis of a hereditary hydrocephalus in the house mouse Clark F

1934

Mouse hy1 Congenital Autosomal Recessive unknown unknown
Eine neue Mutation der Hausmaus: “hydrocephalus”. Zimmermann K

1933

Mouse hy2 Congenital Autosomal Recessive unknown unknown
Two hereditary types of hydrocephalus in the house mouse (Mus musculus). Clark F

1935

Mouse hy2 Congenital Autosomal Recessive unknown unknown
Two new mutant genes in the house mouse. Gruneberg H

1943

Mouse hy3 Congenital Autosomal Recessive Hydin 8 16q22.2 HYDIN
The pathophysiology and morphology of murine hydrocephalus in Hy-3 and Ch mutants. Raimondi AJ, Bailey OT, McLone DG, et al.

1973

Mouse hy3 Congenital Autosomal Recessive Hydin 8 16q22.2 HYDIN
Genetic mapping of an insertional hydrocephalus-inducing mutation allelic to hy3 Robinson ML, Allen CE, Davy BE, et al.

2002

Mouse hy3 Congenital Autosomal Recessive Hydin 8 16q22.2 HYDIN
Congenital hydrocephalus in hy3 mice is caused by a frameshift mutation in Hydin, a large novel gene. Davy BE, Robinson ML

2003

Mouse hy3 Congenital Autosomal Recessive Hydin 8 16q22.2 HYDIN
The gene for soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor attachment protein alpha is mutated in hydrocephaly with hop gait (hyh) mice Hong HK, Chakravarti A, Takahashi JS

2004

Mouse C57BL/10J Congenital Autosomal Recessive hyh 7 19q13.3 a-SNAP
The hyh mutation uncovers roles for alpha Snap in apical protein localization and control of neural cell fate. Chae TH, Kim S, Marz KE, et al.

2004

Mouse C57BL/10J Congenital Autosomal Recessive hyh 7 19q13.3 a-SNAP
Graded phenotypic response to partial and complete deficiency of a brain-specific transcript variant of the winged helix transcription factor RFX4. Blackshear PJ, Graves JP, Stumpo DJ, et al.

2003

Mouse C57BL/6J Congenital Autosomal Dominant Rfx4 10 12q24 RFX4
Hemorrhagic hydrocephalus (hhy): a novel mutation on mouse chromosome 12. Kuwamura M, Kinoshita A, Okumoto M, et al.

2004

Mouse BALB/cHeA Congenital Autosomal Recessive hhy 12 14q32
The forkhead/winged helix gene Mf1 is disrupted in the pleiotropic mouse mutation congenital hydrocephalus. Kume T, Deng KY, Winfrey V, et al.

1998

Mouse ch Congenital Autosomal Recessive Mf1 13 6p25 FREAC-3
Obstructive hydrocephalus. Dickie M

1968

Mouse STOCK tb Congenital Autosomal Recessive oh unknown
New mutant mouse with communicating hydrocephalus and secondary aqueductal stenosis. Borit A, Sidman RL

1972

Mouse STOCK tb Congenital Autosomal Recessive oh unknown
Dysfunction of axonemal dynein heavy chain Mdnah5 inhibits ependymal flow and reveals a novel mechanism for hydrocephalus formation. Ibanez-Tallon I, Pagenstecher A, Fliegauf M, et al.

2004

Mouse C57BL/6*CBA/j Congenital Autosomal Recessive Mdnah5 15 5p15.2 DNAHS
Hydrocephalus in the Otx2+/− mutant mouse. Makiyama Y, Shoji S, Mizusawa H

1997

Mouse C57BL/CBA Congenital Autosomal Dominant Otx2 14 14q21-q22 OTX2
Msx1-deficient mice fail to form prosomere 1 derivatives, subcommissural organ, and posterior commissure and develop hydrocephalus. Fernandez-Llebrez P, Grondona JM, Perez J, et al.

2004

Mouse 129P2/OlaHsd Congenital Autosomal Recessive Msx1 5 4p16.3-p16.1 MSX1
Msx1 disruption leads to diencephalon defects and hydrocephalus. Ramos C, Fernandez-Llebrez P, Bach A, et al.

2004

Mouse 129P2/OlaHsd Congenital Autosomal Recessive Msx1 5 4p16.3-p16.1 MSX1
Development of hydrocephalus in mice lacking SOCS7. Krebs DL, Metcalf D, Merson TD, et al.

2004

Mouse C57BL/6 Congenital Autosomal Recessive Socs7 11 17q12 SOCS7
Structural abnormalities develop in the brain after ablation of the gene encoding nonmuscle myosin II-B heavy chain. Tullio AN, Bridgman PC, Tresser NJ, et al.

2001

Mouse C57BL/6J Congenital Autosomal Recessive Nmhc-b 11 17q13 MYH10
Mutations affecting neural survival in the zebrafish Danio rerio. Abdelilah S, Mountcastle-Shah E, Harvey M, et al.

1996

Zebrafish m404/m491 Congenital Autosomal Recessive apo unknown
A genetic screen for mutations affecting embryogenesis in zebrafish. Driever W, Solnica-Krezel L, Schier AF, et al.

1996

Zebrafish m404/m491 Congenital Autosomal Recessive apo unknown
Mutations affecting neural survival in the zebrafish Danio rerio. Abdelilah S, Mountcastle-Shah E, Harvey M, et al.

1996

Zebrafish m409/m432 Congenital Autosomal Recessive cudak unknown
A genetic screen for mutations affecting embryogenesis in zebrafish. Driever W, Solnica-Krezel L, Schier AF, et al.

1996

Zebrafish m409/m432 Congenital Autosomal Recessive cudak unknown
Mutations affecting neural survival in the zebrafish Danio rerio. Abdelilah S, Mountcastle-Shah E, Harvey M, et al.

1996

Zebrafish m691 Congenital Autosomal Recessive eagle unknown
A genetic screen for mutations affecting embryogenesis in zebrafish. Driever W, Solnica-Krezel L, Schier AF, et al.

1996

Zebrafish m691 Congenital Autosomal Recessive eagle unknown
Mutations affecting neural survival in the zebrafish Danio rerio. Abdelilah S, Mountcastle-Shah E, Harvey M, et al.

1996

Zebrafish m591 Congenital Autosomal Recessive endeavor unknown
A genetic screen for mutations affecting embryogenesis in zebrafish. Driever W, Solnica-Krezel L, Schier AF, et al.

1996

Zebrafish m591 Congenital Autosomal Recessive endeavor unknown
Mutations affecting neural survival in the zebrafish Danio rerio. Abdelilah S, Mountcastle-Shah E, Harvey M, et al.

1996

Zebrafish m584 Congenital Autosomal Recessive enterprise unknown
A genetic screen for mutations affecting embryogenesis in zebrafish. Driever W, Solnica-Krezel L, Schier AF, et al.

1996

Zebrafish m584 Congenital Autosomal Recessive enterprise unknown
Mutations affecting neural survival in the zebrafish Danio rerio. Abdelilah S, Mountcastle-Shah E, Harvey M, et al.

1996

Zebrafish m492/m510 Congenital Autosomal Recessive galileo unknown
A genetic screen for mutations affecting embryogenesis in zebrafish. Driever W, Solnica-Krezel L, Schier AF, et al.

1996

Zebrafish m492/m510 Congenital Autosomal Recessive galileo unknown
Mutations affecting neural survival in the zebrafish Danio rerio. Abdelilah S, Mountcastle-Shah E, Harvey M, et al.

1996

Zebrafish m445/m585/m700 Congenital Autosomal Recessive gumowy unknown
A genetic screen for mutations affecting embryogenesis in zebrafish. Driever W, Solnica-Krezel L, Schier AF, et al.

1996

Zebrafish m445/m585/m700 Congenital Autosomal Recessive gumowy unknown
Mutations affecting neural survival in the zebrafish Danio rerio. Abdelilah S, Mountcastle-Shah E, Harvey M, et al.

1996

Zebrafish m727 Congenital Autosomal Recessive hubble unknown
A genetic screen for mutations affecting embryogenesis in zebrafish. Driever W, Solnica-Krezel L, Schier AF, et al.

1996

Zebrafish m727 Congenital Autosomal Recessive hubble unknown
Mutations affecting neural survival in the zebrafish Danio rerio. Abdelilah S, Mountcastle-Shah E, Harvey M, et al.

1996

Zebrafish m221/m470/m680 Congenital Autosomal Recessive interrail unknown
A genetic screen for mutations affecting embryogenesis in zebrafish. Driever W, Solnica-Krezel L, Schier AF, et al.

1996

Zebrafish m221/m470/m680 Congenital Autosomal Recessive interrail unknown
Mutations affecting neural survival in the zebrafish Danio rerio. Abdelilah S, Mountcastle-Shah E, Harvey M, et al.

1996

Zebrafish m733 Congenital Autosomal Recessive kepler unknown
A genetic screen for mutations affecting embryogenesis in zebrafish. Driever W, Solnica-Krezel L, Schier AF, et al.

1996

Zebrafish m733 Congenital Autosomal Recessive kepler unknown
Mutations affecting neural survival in the zebrafish Danio rerio. Abdelilah S, Mountcastle-Shah E, Harvey M, et al.

1996

Zebrafish m728 Congenital Autosomal Recessive neil unknown
A genetic screen for mutations affecting embryogenesis in zebrafish. Driever W, Solnica-Krezel L, Schier AF, et al.

1996

Zebrafish m728 Congenital Autosomal Recessive neil unknown
Mutations affecting neural survival in the zebrafish Danio rerio. Abdelilah S, Mountcastle-Shah E, Harvey M, et al.

1996

Zebrafish m481 Congenital Autosomal Recessive pan twardowski unknown
A genetic screen for mutations affecting embryogenesis in zebrafish. Driever W, Solnica-Krezel L, Schier AF, et al.

1996

Zebrafish m481 Congenital Autosomal Recessive pan twardowski unknown
Mutations affecting neural survival in the zebrafish Danio rerio. Abdelilah S, Mountcastle-Shah E, Harvey M, et al.

1996

Zebrafish m172/m476 Congenital Autosomal Recessive uchu hikoushi unknown
A genetic screen for mutations affecting embryogenesis in zebrafish. Driever W, Solnica-Krezel L, Schier AF, et al.

1996

Zebrafish m172/m476 Congenital Autosomal Recessive uchu hikoushi unknown
Mutations affecting neural survival in the zebrafish Danio rerio. Abdelilah S, Mountcastle-Shah E, Harvey M, et al.

1996

Zebrafish m766 Congenital Autosomal Recessive voyager unknown
A genetic screen for mutations affecting embryogenesis in zebrafish. Driever W, Solnica-Krezel L, Schier AF, et al.

1996

Zebrafish m766 Congenital Autosomal Recessive voyager unknown
Mutations affecting neural survival in the zebrafish Danio rerio. Abdelilah S, Mountcastle-Shah E, Harvey M, et al.

1996

Zebrafish m331 Congenital Autosomal Recessive viking unknown
A genetic screen for mutations affecting embryogenesis in zebrafish. Driever W, Solnica-Krezel L, Schier AF, et al.

1996

Zebrafish m331 Congenital Autosomal Recessive viking unknown
Mutations affecting neural survival in the zebrafish Danio rerio. Abdelilah S, Mountcastle-Shah E, Harvey M, et al.

1996

Zebrafish m479/m627 Congenital Autosomal Recessive yura unknown
A genetic screen for mutations affecting embryogenesis in zebrafish. Driever W, Solnica-Krezel L, Schier AF, et al.

1996

Zebrafish m479/m627 Congenital Autosomal Recessive yura unknown
Mutations affecting neural survival in the zebrafish Danio rerio. Abdelilah S, Mountcastle-Shah E, Harvey M, et al.

1996

Zebrafish m111/m307/m15/m97 Congenital Autosomal Recessive zezem unknown
A genetic screen for mutations affecting embryogenesis in zebrafish. Driever W, Solnica-Krezel L, Schier AF, et al.

1996

Zebrafish m111/m307/m15/m97 Congenital Autosomal Recessive zezem unknown
Animal Models - Kaolin
Title
Author Year Species Strain Site of Injection Solution Amount Age or Weight at Injection Clinical Form Notes
Decorin prevents the development of juvenile communicating hydrocephalus Botfield H, Gonzalez AM, Abdullah O, Skjolding AD, Berry M, McAllister JP 2nd, Logan A.

2013

Rat Sprague-Dawley Basal Cisterns 30 μl of 20% kaolin 3 weeks Communicating
Differential vulnerability of white matter structures to experimental infantile hydrocephalus detected by diffusion tensor imaging Ramin Eskandari & Osama Abdullah & CameronMason & Kelley E. Lloyd & Amanda N. Oeschle & James P. McAllister II

2014

Feline Cisterna Magna 25% sterile kaolin 2 weeks Obstructive
Hydrocephalus induced via intraventricular kaolin injection in adult rats Zhang Shaolin, Wang Zhanxiang, Xu Hao, Zhang Feifei, Huang Caiquan, Chen Donghan, Bao Jianfeng, Liu Feng, Shen Shanghang

2015

Rat Sprague-Dawley Lateral Ventricle 30 μl sterile suspension of 3% kaolin in saline 240-260 g Communicating
Changes of fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in the model of experimental acute hydrocephalus in rabbits Maxim A. Shevtsov & Konstantin A. Senkevich & Alexander V. Kim & Kseniia A. Gerasimova & Tatyana N. Trofimova & Galina V. Kataeva & Sviatoslav V. Medvedev & Olga I. Smirnova & Zhanna I. Savintseva & Marina G. Martynova & Olga A. Bystrova & Emil Pitkin & Galina Y. Yukina & William A. Khachatryan

2014

Rabbit New Zealand Lateral Ventricle 0.4 ml of 30 % kaolin solution 4.5-5.5 kg Acute Obstructive
Inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signal is alleviated reactive gliosis in rats with hydrocephalus Hao Xu & Bin Xu & ZhanXiang Wang & GuoWei Tan & ShangHang Shen

2014

Rat Sprague-Dawley Lateral Ventricle 30-μl sterile suspension of 3 % kaolin in saline 240-260 g
Pre- and Postshunting Magnetization Transfer Ratios Are in Accordance with Neurological and Behavioral Changes in Hydrocephalic Immature Rats Carlos Henrique, Rocha Catalão Diego Augusto, Leme Correa, Camila Araújo, Bernardino Garci, Antonio Carlos dos Santos, Carlos Ernesto, Garrido Salmon, Maria José, Alves Rocha, Luiza da Silva Lopes

2014

Rat Wistar Dorsal Edge of the Foramen Magnum and the First Cervical Vertebra 40 μl of a 20% sterile kaolin suspension in distilled water 7 PN
Oral antioxidant therapy for juvenile rats with kaolin-induced hydrocephalus Domenico L Di Curzio, Emily Turner-Brannen and Marc R Del Bigio

2014

Rat Sprague-Dawley Cisterna Magna sterile suspension of kaolin (aluminum silicate, 250 mg/mL; Sigma, St. Louis MO) in 0.9% normal saline (0.04 mL) 21-23 PN
Oral antioxidant therapy for juvenile rats with kaolin-induced hydrocephalus Domenico L Di Curzio, Emily Turner-Brannen and Marc R Del Bigio

2014

Rat Long Evans Cisterna Magna sterile suspension of kaolin (aluminum silicate, 250 mg/mL) in 0.9% normal saline (0.04 mL) 21-23 PN
Kaolin-induced ventriculomegaly at weaning produces long-term learning, memory, and motor deficits in rats. Michael T. Williams, Amanda A. Braun, Robyn Amos-Kroohs, James P. McAllister

II, Diana M. Lindquist, Francesco T. Mangano, Charles V. Vorhees, Weihong Yuan

2014

Rat Sprague-Dawley Cisterna Magna 30-50 μl kaolin (25% w/v in sterile saline) 21 PN
Camellia sinensis neuroprotective role in experimentally induced hydrocephalus in Wistar rats Carlos Henrique Rocha Catalão & Diego Augusto Leme Correa & Samuel Takashi Saito & Luiza da Silva Lopes

2014

Rat Wistar Dorsal Edge of the Foramen Magnum and the First Cervical Vertebra 0.04 ml of 20 % kaolin (aluminum silicate; Sigma, St. Louis MO) suspension in distilled water was injected. 7 PN
A Multisensor Implant for Continuous Monitoring of Intracranial Pressure Dynamics Stefanie Jetzki, Member, IEEE, Martin Weinzierl, Inga Krause, Sebastian Hahne, Hubertus Rehbaum, Michael Kiausch, Ivanna Kozubek, Carmen Hellenbroich, Markus Oertel, Marian Walter, Member, IEEE, and Steffen Leonhardt, Senior Member, IEEE

2012

Pig Cisterna Magna similar to bernard williams (look below)
Pre- and post-shunting observations in adult sheep with kaolin-induced hydrocephalus Miles G Johnston, Marc R Del Bigio, James M Drake, Dianna Armstrong, Domenico L Di Curzio and Jeff Bertrand

2013

Sheep Ovis Aries, Dorset breed Cisterna Magna 3 ml of a 25% suspension
Reduced subventricular zone proliferation and white matter damage in juvenile ferrets with kaolin-induced hydrocephalus Domenico L. Di Curzio, Richard J. Buist, Marc R. Del Bigio

2013

Ferret Pigmented Sable Cisterna Magna 0.2 mL of 20% sterile kaolin suspension (250 mg/mL in 0.9% saline) 13-14 PN
Procollagen Type I C-terminal propeptide, procollagen Type III N-terminal propeptide, hyaluronic acid, and laminin in the cerebrospinal fluid of rats with communicating hydrocephalus Hao Xu, M.M., Zhanxiang Wang, M.D., Shaolin Zhang, M.M., Guowei Tan, M.M., and Hongwei Zhu, M.D

2013

Rat Sprague-Dawley Lateral Ventricle 30-ml sterile suspension of 3% kaolin (ultrasonic emulsification about 15 minutes) in saline 240-260 g Communicating
Kaolin-induced chronic hydrocephalus accelerates amyloid deposition and vascular disease in transgenic rats expressing high levels of human APP Gerald D Silverberg, Miles C Miller, Crissey L Pascale, Ilias N Caralopoulos, Yuksel Agca, Cansu Agca and Edward G Stopa

2015

Rat APP 21 transgenic rats (tgAPP21) Cisterna Magna kaolin (aluminum silicate 0.9%) 6-12 month rats express high levels of human APP and naturally overproduce Aβ40, but not Aβ42. The tgAPP21 rats were produced from inbred Fischer 344 rats that express human APP driven by the ubiquitin-C promoter. They were generated via lentiviral vector infection of the Fischer 344 zygotes
Morphological and Morphometric Analysis of the Hippocampus in Wistar Rats with Experimental Hydrocephalus Meira Taveira K.V., Carraro K.T., Rocha Catalão C.H., da Silva Lopes L

2012

Rat Wistar Cisterna Magna 20% kaolin suspension 7 PN
Expression of HGF, MMP-9 and TGF-β1 in the CSF and cerebral tissue of adult rats with hydrocephalus Shaolin Zhang, Donghan Chen, Caiquan Huang, Jianfeng Bao, and Zhanxiang Wang

2013

Rat Sprague-Dawley Lateral Ventricle 30-μl sterile suspension of 3% kaolin in saline 240–260 g
0.1T magnetic resonance image in the study of experimental hydrocephalus in rats. Accuracy of the method in the measurements of the ventricular size Castro SC, Machado HR, Catalão CH, Siqueira BA, Simões AL, Lachat JJ, Lopes Lda S.

2012

Rat Wistar Cisterna Magna 0.04ml of 20% sterile kaolin suspension diluted in distilled water 7 PN
CSF flow pathways through the ventricle-cistern interfaces in kaolin-induced hydrocephalus rats-laboratoryinvestigation. Yoon JS, Nam TK, Kwon JT, Park SW, Park YS.

2015

Rat Sprague-Dawley Cisterna Magna 100 μL of 20 % kaolin insterted at the rate of about 6 μL/s 280-300 g Chronic Obstructive
The relationship between ventricular dilatation, neuropathological and neurobehavioural changes in hydrocephalic rats Olopade FE, Shokunbi MT, Sirén AL.

2012

Rat Not Specified Cisterna Magna sterile kaolin suspension, 0.02 ml (250 mg/ml in distilled water) with a 27 gauge needle 3 weeks
Cerebrospinal fluid volume measurements in hydrocephalic rats Basati S, Desai B, Alaraj A, Charbel F, Linninger A.

2012

Rat Sprague-Dawley Cisterna Magna 20 μl of 25% w/v sterile kaolin suspension 3 weeks
Intracranial biomechanics of acute experimental hydrocephalus in live rats. Shulyakov AV, Buist RJ, Del Bigio MR.

2012

Rat Sprague-Dawley Cisterna Magna 0.02 mL of sterile kaolin suspension (200 mg/mL kaolin in 0.9% saline) 56 PN
Effect of delayed intermittent ventricular drainage on ventriculomegaly and neurological deficits in experimental neonatal hydrocephalus. Eskandari R, Packer M, Burdett EC, McAllister JP 2nd.

2012

Feline Cisterna Magna 0.5 ml of 25 % kaolin suspension (12.5 g of

kaolin powder in 50 ml of sterile water)

2 weeks
Reactive gliosis and neuroinflammation in rats with communicating hydrocephalus. Xu H, Zhang SL, Tan GW, Zhu HW, Huang CQ, Zhang FF, Wang ZX

2012

Rat Sprague-Dawley Lateral Ventricle 30 μl sterile suspension of 3% kaolin in saline 240-260 g
Morphometric analysis of the optic nerve in experimental hydrocephalus-induced rats Aisengart B, Kajiwara JK, Veríssimo Meira K, da Silva Lopes L.

2011

Rat Wistar Suboccipital Percutaneous 0.4 ml of a kaolin suspension diluted in distilled water of 20%. 7 PN
Differences in distribution and regulation of astrocytic aquaporin-4 in human and rat hydrocephalic brain. Skjolding AD, Holst AV, Broholm H, Laursen H, Juhler M.

2013

Rat Sprague-Dawley Cisterna Magna 0.050 ml of sterile kaolin suspension (0.250 mg/mL Ringer’s lactate solution (1.4 mM Ca2+, 4 mM K+, 130 mM Na+, 109 mM Cl-, 28 mM lactate) 8 weeks
Cerebral white matter oxidation and nitrosylation in young rodents with kaolin-induced hydrocephalus. Del Bigio MR, Khan OH, da Silva Lopes L, Juliet PA.

2012

Rat Sprague-Dawley Cisterna Magna sterile kaolin (aluminum silicate) suspension (20Y30 KL of 20% suspension in 0.9% saline) 7 PN
Changes caused by hydrocephalus, induced by kaolin, in the corpus callosum of adult dogs. Cardoso EJ, Lachat JJ, Lopes LS, Santos AC, Colli BO.

2011

Dog Canis Familiaris Cisterna Magna hydrated aluminum silicate / kaolin (30 g in 20 ml 0.9% saline in a dose of 50mg/kg) 7-18 kg
Aquaporin-4 expression is not elevated in mild hydrocephalus. Aghayev K, Bal E, Rahimli T, Mut M, Balci S, Vrionis F, Akalan N.

2012

Rat Wistar-Hannover Cisterna Magna 5 μl 25% kaolin suspension in normal saline 250–300 g
Diffusion tensor imaging of white matter injury in a rat model of infantile hydrocephalus. Yuan W, McAllister JP 2nd, Lindquist DM, Gill N, Holland SK, Henkel D, Rajagopal A, Mangano FT.

2012

Rat Sprague-Dawley Cisterna Magna solution of kaolin (25% w/v in sterile saline) 21 PN
Neuroendoscopic surgery in empty ventricular system under continuous gas infusion experimental study of pressure changes and complications. Turhan T, Aydın Ö, Ersahin Y

2012

Rabbit New Zealand Cisterna Magna 200-mg/mL kaolin solution in normal saline, 0.5 mL 2,500–3,100 g
Reactive astrocytosis in feline neonatal hydrocephalus: acute, chronic, and shunt-induced changes. Eskandari R, Harris CA, McAllister JP 2nd.

2011

Feline Cisterna Magna 50 μl of 25% kaolin solution in buffered saline 10 PN
Neuroprotective effect of memantine on hippocampal neurons in infantile rat hydrocephalus. Cabuk B, Etus V, Bozkurt SU, Sav A, Ceylan S.

2011

Rat Sprague-Dawley Cisterna Magna 0.05 ml of sterile kaolin suspension (250 mg/ml in 0.9% saline) 3 weeks
Magnetic resonance imaging indicators of blood-brain barrier and brain water changes in young rats with kaolin-induced hydrocephalus. Del Bigio MR, Slobodian I, Schellenberg AE, Buist RJ, Kemp-Buors TL.

2011

Rat Sprague-Dawley Cisterna Magna 0.025-0.030 ml of sterile kaolin suspension (250 mg/ml in 0.9% saline) 4 weeks
Tricarboxylic acid cycle activity measured by 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy in rats subjected to thekaolin model of obstructed hydrocephalus. Melø TM, Håberg AK, Risa Ø, Kondziella D, Henry PG, Sonnewald U.

2011

Rat Sprague-Dawley Cisterna Magna 0.1 ml kaolin (4 g/ml 0.9% saline) 2 months
Anxiety responses and neurochemical changes in a kaolin-induced rat model of hydrocephalus Hwang YS, Shim I, Chang JW.

2011

Rat Sprague-Dawley Cisterna Magna 0.1 ml of 20% kaolin solution 300–350 g
Development of an acute obstructive hydrocephalus model in rats using N-butyl cyanoacrylate. Park YS1, Park SW, Suk JS, Nam TK

2011

Rat Sprague-Dawley Cisterna Magna 100 μL of 20% kaolin solution 280-300 g Acute Obstructive
Hydrocephalus induces dynamic spatiotemporal regulation of aquaporin-4 expression in the rat brain Skjolding AD, Rowland IJ, Søgaard LV, Praetorius J, Penkowa M, Juhler M.

2010

Rat Sprague-Dawley Cisterna Magna 0.050 ml of sterile kaolin suspension (0.250 mg/mL Ringer’s lactate solution (1.4 mM Ca2+, 4 mM K+ , 130 mM Na+ , 109 mM Cl- , 28 mM lactate) 8 weeks
Altered cellular localization of aquaporin-1 in experimental hydrocephalus in mice and reduced ventriculomegaly in aquaporin-1 deficiency. Wang D, Nykanen M, Yang N, Winlaw D, North K, Verkman AS, Owler BK.

2011

Mouse AQP1 KO Cisterna Magna 10 μL of 5% kaolin suspension in saline 6-8 Weeks
Reactive astrocytosis, microgliosis and inflammation in rats with neonatal hydrocephalus Deren KE, Packer M, Forsyth J, Milash B, Abdullah OM, Hsu EW, McAllister JP 2nd

2010

Rat Sprague-Dawley Cisterna Magna sterile suspension of 25% kaolin in saline 1 PN
The dynamics of brain and cerebrospinal fluid growth in normal versus hydrocephalic mice. Mandell JG, Neuberger T, Drapaca CS, Webb AG, Schiff SJ.

2010

Mouse C57BL/6 Cisterna Magna Ten microliters of sterilized kaolin solution, composed of 250 mg kaolin and 50 μl Magnevist contrast agent per milliliter of 0.9% saline 14 PN
Infliximab administration reduces neuronal apoptosis on the optic pathways in a rabbit hydrocephalus model: a preliminary report. Kurt G, Cemil B, Borcek AO, Borcek P, Akyurek N, Sepici A, Ceviker N.

2010

Rabbit New Zealand Cisterna Magna 0.1 to 0.2 ml of sterile kaolin suspension (250 mg/ml) 5100-6200 g
Elevated CSF outflow resistance associated with impaired lymphatic CSF absorption in a rat model of kaolin-induced communicating hydrocephalus. Nagra G, Wagshul ME, Rashid S, Li J, McAllister JP 2nd, Johnston M.

2010

Rat Sprague-Dawley Basal Cisterns 50-μL sterile suspension of 25% kaolin in saline 234-287 g Communicating
Amyloid and Tau accumulate in the brains of aged hydrocephalic rats. Silverberg GD, Miller MC, Machan JT, Johanson CE, Caralopoulos IN, Pascale CL, Heile A, Klinge PM.

2010

Rat Sprague-Dawley Cisterna Magna 0.03 ml kaolin suspension (aluminum silicate, diluted with 0.9% saline; 1:4) 12 months
Low-dose kaolin-induced feline hydrocephalus and feline ventriculostomy: an updated model. Lollis SS, Hoopes PJ, Kane S, Paulsen K, Weaver J, Roberts DW.

2009

Feline Cisterna Magna 10 mg in 0.25 ml of sterile saline 2.0–3.5 kg
The behavioral change of locomotor activity in a kaolin-induced hydrocephalus rat model: evaluation of the effect on the dopaminergic system with progressive ventricle dilatation. Hwang YS, Shim I, Chang JW.

2009

Rat Sprague-Dawley Cisterna Magna 0.1 ml of 20% kaolin solution 300-350 g
Low levels of amyloid-beta and its transporters in neonatal rats with and without hydrocephalus. Deren KE, Forsyth J, Abdullah O, Hsu EW, Klinge PM, Silverberg GD, Johanson CE, McAllister JP 2nd.

2009

Rat Sprague-Dawley Cisterna Magna 1.0 ml syringe containing 25% kaolin in sterile saline 1 PN
Characterization of juvenile and young adult mice following induction of hydrocephalus with kaolin. Lopes Lda S, Slobodian I, Del Bigio MR.

2009

Mouse CD1 Cisterna Magna 0.3 ml sterile kaolin suspension (in 0.9% saline) 7 PN an 7-8 weeks
Ventricular dilation and elevated aqueductal pulsations in a new experimental model of communicatinghydrocephalus. Wagshul ME, McAllister JP, Rashid S, Li J, Egnor MR, Walker ML, Yu M, Smith SD, Zhang G, Chen JJ, Benveniste H.

2009

Rat Sprague-Dawley Basal Cisterns 30-μl sterile suspension of 25% kaolin in saline, injected manually at about 6 μl/ sec) 250 g Chronic Communicating
Gray matter metabolism in acute and chronic hydrocephalus. Kondziella D, Eyjolfsson EM, Saether O, Sonnewald U, Risa O.

2009

Rat Sprague-Dawley Cisterna Magna 0.1 ml kaolin (4 g/ml 0.9% saline) 2 months old, 200g
Ventricular dilation and elevated aqueductal pulsations in a new experimental model of communicatinghydrocephalus. Guild SJ, McBryde FD, Malpas SC.

2015

Rat Wistar Cisterna Magna 30 ul of a 25% Kaolin suspension in saline 297-394 g
Morinda citrifolia L. (noni) and memantine attenuate periventricular tissue injury of the fourth ventricle in hydrocephalic rabbits. Köktürk S, Ceylan S, Etus V, Yasa N, Ceylan S.

2013

Rabbit New Zealand Cisterna Magna 0.5 mL (500 mg/mL in 0.09 % (w/v) NaCl) kaolin suspension 4-5 months
Model-based estimation of ventricular deformation in the cat brain. Liu F, Lollis SS, Ji S, Paulsen KD, Hartov A, Roberts DW.

2009

Feline Cisterna Magna 10– 50 mg mixed in sterile saline adult
The effect of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist (memantine) on esophageal and gastric smooth muscle: functional investigation in a rat hydrocephalus model. Bektaş AO, Tugay M, Tugay S, Göçmez SS, Etus V, Utkan T.

2008

Rat Sprague-Dawley Cisterna Magna sterile suspension of 25% kaolin 8 weeks
Effect of hydrocephalus on rat brain extracellular compartment. Del Bigio MR, Enno TL.

2008

Rat Sprague-Dawley Cisterna Magna (250 mg/ml in 0.9% saline 1 PN, 3 weeks, 10 weeks
Communicating hydrocephalus in adult rats with kaolin obstruction of the basal cisterns or the cortical subarachnoid space. Li J, McAllister JP 2nd, Shen Y, Wagshul ME, Miller JM, Egnor MR, Johnston MG, Haacke EM, Walker ML.

2008

Rat Sprague-Dawley Basal Cisterns or Cerebral Convexities 30-μl sterile suspension of 25% kaolin in saline was injected at the rate of about 6 µl/s (Basal Cistern) or A sterile suspension of 25%

kaolin (60 µl) in saline, or saline alone, was injected into the

subarachnoid space at a rate of approximately 2 µl/s (cerebral convexities)

220-270 g Communicating
Alterations in the mechanical properties of bladder smooth muscle in hydrocephalus rat model. Tugay M, Tugay S, Etuş V, Yazir Y, Utkan T.

2008

Rat Sprague-Dawley Cisterna Magna 0.05 mL of sterile kaolin suspension (250 mg/mL in 0.9% NaCl) 7 PN
Impaired lymphatic cerebrospinal fluid absorption in a rat model of kaolin-induced communicatinghydrocephalus. Nagra G, Li J, McAllister JP 2nd, Miller J, Wagshul M, Johnston M.

2008

Rat Sprague-Dawley Subarachnoid Space 50-l sterile suspension of 25% kaolin in saline was injected at the rate of about 6 l/s. 246.01 +/- 2.41 g Communicating With obstructions of the basal cistern or cerebral convexities
Calcium antagonism in neonatal rats with kaolin-induced hydrocephalus. Khan OH, McPhee LC, Moddemann LN, Del Bigio MR.

2007

Rat Sprague-Dawley Cisterna Magna (0.02 mL of sterile suspension [250 mg/mL in 0.9% saline] 1 PN
Fragmentation of protein kinase N (PKN) in the hydrocephalic rat brain. Okii N, Amano T, Seki T, Matsubayashi H, Mukai H, Ono Y, Kurisu K, Sakai N.

2007

Rat Wistar Cisterna Magna 0.03 ml–0.05 ml of 5% kaolin solution 250–300 g
Protein and synthetic polymer injection for induction of obstructive hydrocephalus in rats. Slobodian I, Krassioukov-Enns D, Del Bigio MR.

2007

Rat Sprague-Dawley Cisterna Magna 30–35 µl sterile kaolin suspension (250 mg/mL in 0.9% saline) 3 weeks
Melatonin ameliorates blood-brain barrier permeability, glutathione, and nitric oxide levels in the choroid plexus of the infantile rats with kaolin-induced hydrocephalus. Turgut M, Erdogan S, Ergin K, Serter M.

2007

Rat Swiss Albino Cisterna Magna 0.05 ml of sterile kaolin suspension 2 weeks
The effect of hydrocephalus on lower esophageal sphincter smooth muscle reactivity: experimental study. Etus V, Tugay M, Utkan T, Ceylan S, Gacar N.

2007

Rat Sprague-Dawley Cisterna Magna 0.05 mL of sterile kaolin suspension (250 mg/mL in 0, 9% NaCl) 7 PN
A ferritin tracer study of compensatory spinal CSF outflow pathways in kaolin-induced hydrocephalus. Voelz K, Kondziella D, von Rautenfeld DB, Brinker T, Lüdemann W.

2007

Rat Lewis Cisterna Magna 0.1 ml kaolin (4 g/ml, 0.9% saline) 250–450 g
Neuronal damage in hydrocephalus and its restoration by shunt insertion in experimental hydrocephalus: a study involving the neurofilament-immunostaining method. Aoyama Y, Kinoshita Y, Yokota A, Hamada T.

2006

Dog Mongrel Cisterna Magna kaolin solution (200 mg/kg) 1-2 months, 2.5-3 kg
Aquaporin 4 changes in rat brain with severe hydrocephalus. Mao X, Enno TL, Del Bigio MR.

2006

Rat Sprague-Dawley Cisterna Magna 0.01 mL sterile kaolin suspension (250 mg/ mL in 0.9% saline) 1 PN or 21 PN
Preservation of functional architecture in visual cortex of cats with experimentally induced hydrocephalus. Imamura K, Tanaka S, Ribot J, Kobayashi M, Yamamoto M, Nakadate K, Watanabe Y.

2006

Feline Cisterna Magna 50 uL of 25% kaolin 1 week
Brain damage in neonatal rats following kaolin induction of hydrocephalus. Khan OH, Enno TL, Del Bigio MR.

2006

Rat Sprague-Dawley Cisterna Magna Sterile kaolin suspension (0.02 ml; 250 mg/ml in 0.9% saline) 1 PN
Heavy water inhibiting the expression of transforming growth factor-beta1 and the development of kaolin-induced hydrocephalus in mice. Hatta J, Hatta T, Moritake K, Otani H.

2006

Mouse Jcl:ICR Cisterna Magna 5 ml of 2% aluminum silicate in distilled water 10-12 Weeks
Brain amyloid accumulates in aged rats with kaolin-induced hydrocephalus. Klinge PM, Samii A, Niescken S, Brinker T, Silverberg GD.

2006

Rat Sprague-Dawley Subarachnoid Space 0.2 ml kaolin suspension (aluminum silicate diluted with 0.9% saline; 1:4) 2, 6, 10 Weeks
Accelerated progression of kaolin-induced hydrocephalus in aquaporin-4-deficient mice. Bloch O, Auguste KI, Manley GT, Verkman AS.

2006

Mouse AQP4 null Cisterna Magna 10 mL of a kaolin suspension (250 mg/ml in PBS) 6-8 Weeks Obstructive
Pressure gradients in the brain in an experimental model of hydrocephalus. Penn RD, Lee MC, Linninger AA, Miesel K, Lu SN, Stylos L.

2005

Dog Mongrel Cisterna Magna 800 mg of sterile kaolin in wate adult
[Effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on neuronal apoptosis in rabbit with kaolin-induced syringomyelia]. Yang GF0, Wang LN, Yang LB, Zhang QJ.

2005

Rabbit Chinese White Cisterna Magna 25% kaolin mixed with equal volume .6 ml

If you have any studies to add, please email them to research@hydroassoc.org